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Negative ions should be a kind of temporary substance form that exists widely. Can a hydrogen atom temporarily attract an additional electron to form a negative ion? Other elements or molecules can. I looked it up at Google. There are negative ions in the hydrogen discharge tube. Negative ions blur the function of electrostatic forces. How should rejection turn into attraction? Also, how long can a negative ion survive? Does the hydrogen atom absorb energy or emit energy when it becomes a negative ion?

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  • $\begingroup$ Yes it can, which is why you can make hydrogen ion beams in a tandem accelerator. Multiple types of ion sources make negative hydrogen beams. $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer Jul 14 at 1:39
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you. Could you explain some of this in detail, or give me a link? $\endgroup$ – Cang Ye Jul 14 at 1:49
  • $\begingroup$ Googling ‘negative ion sources’ produces many leads. $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer Jul 14 at 1:52

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