Assume I'm travelling at 70mph (31.3m/s) in my car and suddenly slam on the brakes and come to a complete stop. I don't brake so hard that the tyres skid.
Assuming my car has a mass of 1000kg, that's a kinetic energy of 490KJ which was just dissipated.
Assuming my brake discs are made of steel and weigh 10kg in total, and given the specific heat capacity of steel is 502J/Kg/K, the brakes should heat up by about 98C.
I know that some energy is lost to air resistance and to friction in the bearings and tyres, but ignore that for the purposes of this question.
Even ignoring friction losses, I know that 98C is not the true figure, since some kinetic energy gets transferred to the earth.
How much kinetic energy gets transferred to the earth and how much to the brakes? Can we calculate that?
I think, obviously the earth must have been pushed forwards by some amount when my car slowed down, so can this be treated as a type of collision?