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in the picture,

  • in the circuit 1, we can see the conventional current direction
  • in the cirucit 2, we can see the real electrons direction

enter image description here it is right i think. but then i have a big problem, during their travel the eletrons pass through the generator, so, they go from + to - .... and it is not possible, an eletron go from - to +. i mean the eletric field is from + to -, so the eletrons must go against the eletric field, so with the opposite direction that the direction i drawn in the 2nd picture.

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    $\begingroup$ Yes you are correct. A long time ago physicists did not know that electrons were the charge carriers, they assumed it was the positive charges. In the battery the electrons are created at the negative plate and there are anions that move in the battery solution to the positive plate. $\endgroup$ – PhysicsDave May 23 at 17:45
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    $\begingroup$ physics.stackexchange.com/questions/315589/… $\endgroup$ – PhysicsDave May 23 at 17:56
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I believe the solution here is that electrons do not pass through the battery (or generator, as you call it). If we imagine a single electron moving through the circuit, it does not make a complete loop, and it certainly doesn't travel around the circuit multiple times.

One can imagine that the reaction in a chemical battery produces electrons, which then travel around the circuit. Once they reach the positive side of the circuit, their journey is over.

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