Is there any way we can substitute the prism that is used in refractometers? For example, introduce other components like lenses or sensors instead of a prism? An idea which could be tried? Could someone help me out in this direction? Thanks in advance. The purpose is still to measure the refractive index.
One can use diffraction gratings instead of prisms.
If you have some coherent light, you could try a lattice or a double slit. The diffraction angle of a double slit is wavelength-dependent. See also Double-Slit experiment. If the light is not coherent, this method also may be used. However, the details are more intricate: Spatial coherence of sunlight and its implications for light management in photovoltaics