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Is there any way we can substitute the prism that is used in refractometers? For example, introduce other components like lenses or sensors instead of a prism? An idea which could be tried? Could someone help me out in this direction? Thanks in advance. The purpose is still to measure the refractive index.

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One can use diffraction gratings instead of prisms.

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If you have some coherent light, you could try a lattice or a double slit. The diffraction angle of a double slit is wavelength-dependent. See also Double-Slit experiment. If the light is not coherent, this method also may be used. However, the details are more intricate: Spatial coherence of sunlight and its implications for light management in photovoltaics

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