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That is, without the introduction of nonlinear optics for frequency multiplication. In the case of orange light, I've often wondered in orange minerals like Lead Molybdate (PbMoO4) fluoresce the way Ruby's do (which are red colored due to hexavalent Chromium oxide impurities).

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Among solid state lasers - Pr:YLF (also Pr in other medium) have 604 and 607nm lines.

Then there is frequency-doubled Nd:YAG at 561nm, and frequency mixed variants (where 2 different lines are summed) - but these do not match requirements of frequency multiplication.

There is Dye lasers, especially Rhodamine ones. If you look here (https://www.radiant-dyes.com/index.php/products/laser-dyes/list-of-laser-dyes) - you'll see that dye lasers covers most of visible spectra.

In gas lasers - as it was mentioned by one of commenters - 611.9nm is available in HeNe lasers, although power is very limited.

Yellow/orange lines are achievable in Raman lasers based on more commonly available gain medium, and finally you can have OPO and dial any wavelength you like (but I would guess this also fall into frequency multiplication restriction).

For visible light solid state lasers pumping is a serious issue, as there are very few pump sources available. Pr:YLF is lucky one and have absorption line at 444nm which is commercially feasible. Others might be not that much useful in real life.

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  • $\begingroup$ Doubled Nd:YAG is mostly green at 532 nm. However I think there are some samarium doped glasses that can be used to achieve laser action, although in fiber form. I'm not sure if lasing occurs around 600 (orange) or 650 nm (red) in them, and efficiency is so low that they are just a curiosity. $\endgroup$ May 12, 2019 at 11:28
  • $\begingroup$ Nd:YAG has many lines including 1122nm, 1064nm is just one with highest gain. $\endgroup$ May 12, 2019 at 14:08
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Slghtly more exotic, copper vapor lasers work at 510 nm (green) and 578 nm (yellow).

They are fairly complex because the laser tube has to be heated to get enough vapor pressure, but determined enthousiasts have managed to build them at home.

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