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How can I calculate magnetic field strength from any given latitude longitude?

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    $\begingroup$ The answer to this varies depending on the precision you want, from "just use a magnetic dipole" on the least precise end to "just look up the data and don't bother calculating it" on the most precise end. $\endgroup$ – probably_someone May 3 '19 at 16:59
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The Earth's field is not something you calculate from scratch. Instead, go to the National Geodetic Data Center and use their calculator:

https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/magfield.shtml

Now the gravity field is stored as spherical harmonic coefficients that can be downloaded along with Fortran code to compute the values, or the data can be downloaded as a grid and interpolated as needed.

A similar protocol is available for the International Geomagnetic Reference Field:

https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/igrf.html

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