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I rather enjoy watching some of the what if scenarios on YouTube, and today I had one trigger my urge to seek out some knowledge on a curiosity I have.

A lot of media out there explains that the Earth orbits the sun on the inner rim of the habitable zone in our solar system and is obviously bustling with life. Mars orbits just beyond the outer rim of the habitable zone and is cold and desolate.

While listening to podcasts, reading papers, and watching videos I often hear of things that could sling Earth out of its current orbit and away into the far depths of the cosmos. For example, what if Jupiter became a star similar to our sun, or if a black hole entered our solar system.

I would assume that being flung out of orbit would cause our rate of travel to increase, but assuming that it remained a constant $66,000$ miles per hour, I can take an educated guess that we would reach the outer edge of the habitable zone in roughly $21$ days. I calculated this based on the rate of travel and the distance between Mars and Earth.

$$t = \frac{d}{s}$$

Where $t$ is the time it would take, $d$ is the distance between Earth and Mars, and $s$ is the speed at which Earth orbits the sun.

However, I know there are plenty more factors that would play a role in how long it would take for all life on Earth to feel the impact. That's exactly what brings me here.


How long would it take for life on Earth to feel the impacts of such an event?

How long would it take for Earth to become cold and desolate like Mars?

You can assume that the trajectory we get put on will ensure we don't collide with other planets or stars for millions of years.

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