There is more to this when you consider inertial effects (major examples on Earth being Coriolis force and centrifugal force), but for the sake of your question I believe you want to ignore those effects.
If I understand the question correctly, you are wondering if jumping straight up would make you land further out, due to the change in wind speed because of the increased radius.
Ignoring the inertial effects, and assuming air carries you with it perfectly, the answer is approximately no, you would not expect to change your position on the surface at all. The reason that the wind must move faster when it is higher up is because it needs to cover (approximately) the exact same amount of surface distance in the same amount of time, but has to travel further because it has a greater radius. This means that the additional speed given at a larger radius is taking you further in the same amount of time as if you were standing on the surface; but you need to travel further in that same amount of time if you want to land in the same spot; because your path is now also longer.
This is all only approximate, because you actually won't get completely up to speed with the air, so in practice this is likely to make you move further back on the surface.