If a satellite is in a stable circular orbit and goes about 41% faster (escape velocity) then it leaves its host forever. I get that. However, what if it speeds up by less than 41%?
Intuitively, it would seem to make the satellite move farther away from the host, and thus enter a higher (more distant) orbit.
However, according to my understanding, a stable orbit requires the satellite to move more slowly the farther away it is from the host. For example, the earth moves more slowly around than the sun than Venus because it is farther away from the sun than Venus.
So, if a satellite speeds up then the stable orbit would be closer to the host, not farther away. What am I missing here?