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From the website of CERN: "Collisions in the LHC generate temperatures more than 100,000 times hotter than the centre of the Sun.". My question is, what happens to the energy released after the collision of two proton beams? How doesn't it destroy anything in CERN? What absorbs that energy?

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This temperature refers to only a very small part of space and, more importantly, to only a very small number of particles. (The definition of temperature can be tricky sometimes).

As about the energy itself: it immediately takes the form of new particles which fly off from the collision centre, and hit on the surrounding detectors.

I think that you are probably wondering about the total energy of the proton beam; if it goes astray it can damage whatever it hits (damage = open a small hole on materials). But it's not like energy is ever released in some other, eruptive, way.

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