Old content (put on hold as too broad) I was massively ill-informed about the experiments that shape the modern particle physics research. For example, I believed that most of the information that guides particle physicists come from accelerators (or colliders, as they are called sometimes) and neutrino oscillations. But reading online I have realized that many other different types of experiments also help to extract valuable information or bounds e.g. various particle detectors (non-accelerators), various non-optical telescopes, observations by satellites in the sky and perhaps even more (I'm not sure). Gravitational waves? It'll be useful if some resourceful person give a summary of the nature of informations. I am not sure if this question is appropriate for this site but I still ask it hoping to get some answers and explain to those who carry such misinformation like me.
Old content streamlined with specific question Since this question was "put on hold" as too broad, let me focus on a specific type of probe e.g. the gravitational wave. How is the research in gravitational waves guide particle physicists in building new models?