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If I were to attempt to create a camera obscura affect in order to capture an image of the stars, or an aurora, would I still be able to get a decent one despite the relatively lower lighting conditions? If not, is there a more effective way to do so?

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If you make a camera obscura with pinhole, no, you won't be able to see weak sources. The moon, yes, you'll see it. If you enlarge the pinhole and put a lens on it, yes, you can see stars etc; however it will be basically a telescope, and you look at the image produced by it on a screen on the focal plane (instead that a sensor). A sensor or an eyepiece are however more effective. The larger the lens/hole, the weaker are the sources you can observe. Pinhole camera obscura has 1 mm or less hole; a small telescope 60 mm; a large telescope, 1+ metre...

If you have an old film camera, you can open the back and put a translucent plate (sanded glass, or thin paper) where the film should be; the lens will focus the image there and you can see it. This is done in the old-style "field cameras". Or you can build your camera from a magnifier lens.

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