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It is said that charge is a property of fundamental matter but mass is also property of matter even we can realize the term mass i.e. it indicates how hard it is to drag a matter. What kind of property charge is and who gave the the concept of of charge and why it is called charge?

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  • $\begingroup$ FWIW, in Kaluza-Klein theory, charge is momentum in a compact extra dimension of space. $\endgroup$
    – PM 2Ring
    Commented Mar 30, 2019 at 12:42

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Particles can have more than one properties such as its mass, its electric charge, its spin and so on. If mass determines inertia, electric charge determines how it responds to an applied electric field (or magnetic field, if in motion) and spin determines how it responds to an external magnetic field. An obvious distinction between the mass of a particle and its electric charge is that the latter can be both positive and negative.

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  • $\begingroup$ Spin only determines how a particle responds to a magnetic field if ithe particle is charged. $\endgroup$
    – G. Smith
    Commented Mar 30, 2019 at 6:03
  • $\begingroup$ @G.Smith Any particle (composite or elementary) having a nonzero spin will interact with an external magnetic field irrespective of whether it is electrically charged or neutral. Right? $\endgroup$
    – SRS
    Commented Mar 30, 2019 at 6:07
  • $\begingroup$ I don’t think so. It will only have a magnetic moment if it is charged. For example, a photon (spin-1) doesn’t get deflected when passing through an external magnetic field, but an electron does. $\endgroup$
    – G. Smith
    Commented Mar 30, 2019 at 6:12
  • $\begingroup$ @G.Smith "It will only have a magnetic moment if it is charged." What about neutrinos? They can have nonzero magnetic moment without being charged. But your other point "a photon (spin-1) doesn’t get deflected when passing through an external magnetic field" is probably true and I'm wondering! $\endgroup$
    – SRS
    Commented Mar 30, 2019 at 6:26
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    $\begingroup$ @G.Smith Neutrons have magnetic moments $\endgroup$ Commented Mar 30, 2019 at 12:21

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