I read all I can but, this is vexing me. It realtes to Quantum-Mechanics, and I believe Quantum Field Theory, and maybe even Quantum Chromodynamics.

Before the Higgs the Model was 16 instead of 17 we have now 6 Leptons, 6 Quarks and 4 Gauge Bosons.

So the PHOTON is the FORCE CARRIER for Electro-Magnetism? It's said. But I plug my Phone in for a recharge - It's not filling up with Photons - the Charge is the "Flow" or "Chain Transfer" of ELECTRONS? ISnt it electrons that zing through our computers. Arent our computers & such electro- magnetic?

And as such is not the electron ALSO a force carrier? Or every point in the universe has 16 fields with each particle being a vibration in their separate fields, with the higgs giving them Mass, in a field that encompasses all 16 other fields. I just don't get why the electron isn't grouped with the force carriers. Or the difference from the Electric Field to the Electro-Magnetic field. It seems to me there are 2 force carriers?

Please help me out I'm confused by this! Best regards and hope it's an interesting question and TIA for any time and effort to explain. - So Just FYI Found here by watching something pretty convincing on the electric universe until he said there were no black holes, and I know we have tracked stars on Sagittarius A and found them looping around an enormous gravity source. Anywhoo I was like "I wonder what Sean Carroll has to say about this "electric universe" - And found this site. Really wanted to know about the above question. With Respect, TIA.

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    $\begingroup$ You are confusing the "carrier" with the "source" of the force. If I attach a rope to you and pull you with a force, then I am the source of the force (the electron or proton) while the rope is the carrier of my force (the photon). $\endgroup$ – safesphere Feb 25 at 8:47
  • $\begingroup$ Why do two electrons repel? This is because of transfer of photons between them. The electrons are the source and the photons are the carrier-particles. $\endgroup$ – harshit54 Feb 25 at 9:58
  • $\begingroup$ @harshit54 I'd like to read your explanation as to why electrons repel whereas an electron and a positron attract. In both cases there is (your words) a "transfer of photons". Where is the difference? Can you tell it in layman terms? $\endgroup$ – Elio Fabri Feb 25 at 16:33

There are only four known forces: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force.

Electromagnetism is a force that charged particles (for example, electrons) exert on other charged particles. They do so through the electromagnetic field, the quanta of which are photons.

So electrons are particles which create and feel the electromagnetic force, not particles that carry the electromagnetic force. Photons carry the force between electrons so that one electron can influence another electron from a distance away. Otherwise, they would have to be at the same point to interact.

Electric and magnetic fields are both part of a unified electromagnetic field, and photons are the quanta of this unified field.

Electrons do flow through our electric wires and computer circuits, but this does not nean that they are force carriers in the lingo of quantum field theory.

The Higgs field is a separate field from the other sixteen. It does not “encompass” them, but it does interact with them in a way that gives mass to many of them.

The Electric Universe is not mainstream physics. I could use stronger language but will refrain.


It depends on what meaning you give for force carriers. and particularly for "force".

In general, any of the particles in the particle table, entering in Feynman diagrams carry $dp/dt$, so all are and can be force carriers at the quantum level, and macroscopically if they survive long enough. In classical physics force IS $dp/dt$.

But if you give the meaning for force to be Force, one of the four fundamental forces as the other answer states, then there is the confusion you find yourself in.

I tend to think of the gauge bosons as representative of the force they are identified with,( the couplings) because they are the lowest order exchanged particles in a perturbative expansion for the simplest interactions.


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