How does total internal reflection from non-planar surfaces in an NPRO help eliminating standing wave and why a planar structure can't give the same result? I understand that to produce optical diode we need three components

  1. non-reciprocal rotation (Faraday rotation due to magnetic field)
  2. reciprocal rotation (waveplate)
  3. Polarizer (dichroic OPC)

How the system as a whole works as a travelling wave ring oscillator ?


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