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Wikipedia says that in 1817, Henry Kater was able to measure distances accurately enough to get at least five significant figures in a measurement of $g,$ suggesting that he could measure a distances on the order of one meter to an accuracy of one hundredth of a millimeter. Indeed, Wikipedia claims he made this measurement to an accuracy of $2.5 \;\mathrm{\mu m}.$

This would be an absolute distance measurement, not detecting changes in distance (as one would do with an interferometer). How did Kater achieve this accuracy?

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