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I have been looking at piezoelectric crystals, LiNbO3 primarily, so piezoelectric devices. But I have had trouble understanding the cuts and orientations that are referred to with the rotated cuts.

My basic understanding is that X cut, means the cut is perpendicular to the X axis, and the flat of the cut is a YZ plane. Y cut, is where the cut is perpendicular to the Y axis, with the flat of the surface a XZ plane, etc.

But I do not know how the axes are selected, is it just a standard that is accepted for the material because that is how it was defined early on, or is there a method or criteria for determining what should be the X,Y and Z axes for different crystal types?

And when a rotated cut is involved, like 128 deg Y cut LiNbO3, how does that work? Where is the cut made relative to the other axes? If someone could provide a diagram that would be very helpful.

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