The answer is either no or yes depending on what you have in mind.
In the SI system of units the unit of length is defined as that distance which is traveled by light in vacuum in a certain specified time. Then a standard atomic clock is used to determine how long to wait until a standard second (or other time interval) has passed. For example one could wait for about 9 billion oscillations of the caesium clock.
Now suppose someone came along and announced that after 9 billion oscillations of the caesium clock in fact two seconds have passed, not one. In this case the standard length (distance traveled by light in one second) would be the distance traveled during 4.5 billion oscillations of the clock, i.e. shorter. Consequently, when measured in this unit, everything in the universe has doubled in size. But nothing has really happened.
So this is one answer to your question. If you rescale all the distances just by redefining the units, then nothing happens. So if someone else is doing such a rescaling without telling you, then they would say that you and all the rest of the universe are getting larger (according to their units) but you would not be aware of it.
The cosmological expansion is NOT like this. In the cosmological expansion, the time scale is fixed at 9 billion oscillations of caesium per second, and the speed of light is constant. Equally, the cosmological expansion does not expand ordinary matter, it simply says that matter in free-fall far from other matter (e.g. galaxies) is growing in distance from other such matter. Each blob of matter meanwhile stays the same size.
Now let's come to another possible meaning of your question. Suppose that throughout spacetime there is an "expansion field". This is a field (unknown to present physics) which causes everything to expand: quarks move further away from each other, electrons clouds in atoms get larger, etc. etc. It is not possible to say whether such an effect would be noticeable until one adds more detail about the effect of this field. Most versions of such an expansion field would be detectable. But if you added enough effects of this field, then eventually you would be able to describe a field whose effect was not distinguishable from merely redefining the units, as in my first example, and in that case the field would not be detectable. What standard physics does with a case like that is to conclude that we may as well say that such a field does not exist. At least, it would have no role to play in physics so we might as well forget about it.
To finish then, if there was really some sort of physical effect, caused by a previously unknown kind of field, which made everything get larger, then most versions of such a field would do this in such a way that the effect would be easy to detect.