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I am aware of the Bell experiment that is supposed to demonstrate that entanglement exists.

The only differences between photons, that I am aware of, are frequency and energy. So, in the Bell experiment, if you use the same energy and frequency when the two photons are emitted you would expect them to have the same characteristics when they are detected at a distance. If one of these properties is varied between the photons when they are emitted then there would be differences at the detectors.

But how does any of this determine that these photons are connected (entangled)?

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closed as off-topic by Emilio Pisanty, Cosmas Zachos, WillO, Jon Custer, ZeroTheHero Jan 11 at 8:25

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    $\begingroup$ That's not how Bell-inequality violation experiments work. Have you read the Wikipedia page on the subject? If you haven't - and you cannot articulate a more specific question based upon it - then you have not done enough prior research. $\endgroup$ – Emilio Pisanty Jan 10 at 21:39
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    $\begingroup$ Photons further carry helicity/ polarization, which is not an inessential feature you must have learned about in your research. $\endgroup$ – Cosmas Zachos Jan 10 at 22:05