From my understanding level, an electron is not too much like an actual particle. An "electron" is really like a standing wave of energy,
You have a lot of misunderstandings:
An electron is an elementary particle in the quantum mechanical model of particle physics, a point particle with spin and mass assigned to this point. Its footprint looks like a particle (the dots in the top frame) and it leaves tracks like a particle in a bubble chamber for example of a detector.
The frequency associated with quantum mechanical particles is a frequency seen only in the probability distrubution, which is predicted by the solutions of quantum mechanical equations.
which based on the energy level of the orbital it has a certain frequency at which the waves radiate back and forth from the nucleus. The further out these waves go the more energy the particular element has.
Now you mix up an electron bound in an atomic unit, around a nucleus. Your description is not useful. What is useful is the concept of orbitals, probability loci for the electron about a nucleus. Here are possible orbitals of a hydrogen atom.
An electron in a higher orbital needs less energy to be supplied so it can get free.
When we apply voltage and current to a conductor and make these "electrons" travel through a wire doesn't that mean that the actual energy from each atom is passing from one nucleus to another and not a particle of any sort? How do the "electron waves" not become disrupted while physically moving in a certain direction?
No. There are no physical waves as you imagine, and certainly no atom to atom exchanges. Solids are modeled quantum mechanically with the band theory
There exists a conduction band, where the electrons are common to the whole system in the conductor crystal structure, not to individual atoms.
A useful way to visualize the difference between conductors, insulators and semiconductors is to plot the available energies for electrons in the materials. Instead of having discrete energies as in the case of free atoms, the available energy states form bands. Crucial to the conduction process is whether or not there are electrons in the conduction band. In insulators the electrons in the valence band are separated by a large gap from the conduction band, in conductors like metals the valence band overlaps the conduction band, and in semiconductors there is a small enough gap between the valence and conduction bands that thermal or other excitations can bridge the gap.
So you see that it is the whole lattice that responds to changes in voltage in a solid, and the electrons that move out of the solid in a current carrying wire are replaced from the voltage source in a continuous manner, so the solid remains neutral.
What is waving at the individual electron level is its probability distribution. A collective classical wave in real space time , like an AC current can be induced by the superposition of a large number of electrons, but it can be simply described by classical electricity and magnetism equations, no need to go to individual electrons, though there is mathematical continuity.
Also, if hydrogen only has one energy shell than how can we consider that a wave at all when a wave is defined by a high and low point alternating together?
The alternations in space happen in the complex number function called the wave function $Ψ$, a solution of the Schrodinger equation , it is $Ψ*Ψ$ that is waving , the probability distribution , not the electron itself, as seen in the double slit experiment above, the interference pattern appears in the accumulation. That is why particle experiments accumulate data with the same initial conditions in order to test the validity of theories.