I think this is as much a mechanical engineering question as it is physics.
Pesonally, I have owned an Alfa Romeo car, which has the front disc brakes assembly at the engine end of the ( front wheel ) drive shafts, rather than at the wheel hub. This reduced the unsprung weight of the wheel assembly and allows the chassis, rather tnan the suspension system, to absorb the braking torque. The weight of the car is slightly reduced by this method.
Does the brake location being closer to center of mass have any effect on the physics of a car in case of a hard braking?
As I guess you know, the main effect to be avoided in the case of hard braking is the sudden transfer of momentum to the front of the car, there is a valve system in modern cars to spread the braking force evenly.
Compared to this requirement, putting say, the brake hubs at the far ends of the wheels has, i would imagine, relatively little effect, when you consider the mass of the car versus the mass of the braking system.