Dirac sea is a model for vacuum which considers the empty space as a sea full of negative-energy particles. Anti-particles are holes in this sea. Dirac sea is used to model Quantum field theory in the paper below:
Here, Bohmian trajectories are assumed for all particles, even the particles in the Dirac sea.
My question is, if the negative-energy particles filling the Dirac sea have any mass or do they show any gravitational effect BEFORE they are created as real particles?
How about other QFT models? Do particles have any mass/gravitational effect before they are created? I think they do in the short time between creation and annihilation.