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This question already has an answer here:

How a battery maintains the current in the citcuit? Iwant to know each and every step of this process mathematically and theoretically also.

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marked as duplicate by Aaron Stevens, John Rennie, Qmechanic Dec 1 '18 at 7:02

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Here is a simplified description.

Inside the battery are reactive chemicals which, when allowed to react, do so by a process involving the exchange of an electron. Those reactive chemicals are separated in such a manner as to allow each electron that one chemical releases to be collected and conducted out of the battery, where the resulting flow of electrons constitutes an electric current which can be used to perform work, before it is returned to the battery.

The battery continues to generate current until such time as the chemicals are used up. The current then stops. If the electrochemical reaction that created the current flow is not readily reversible, the spent battery is discarded. If it is readily reversible, then the battery can be replentished by forcing current backwards through the battery until all the chemicals inside it have been returned to their original unreacted state.

Entire textbooks have been written on this general process, which falls under the classification of electrochemistry; as such, the complete description you desire cannot be furnished here.

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