To pictographically explain, how do you convert Fig. 1 to Fig. 2?
You cannot directly derive the information in picture 2 from picture 1, because they show different things.
The first image shows spectral radiance, the second set of images shows opacities (or rather absorption coefficients) for specific atmospheric constituents. The top graph can be either measured or simulated. The second graph can only be calculated using a radiative transfer model.