By the whole universe I mean everything besides $|0\rangle$, if not what is the environment then? How do they interact?

If the whole universe is a closed system, can we assign a single Hamiltonian to it?

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    $\begingroup$ I'm not sure anybody knows the answers. Here are a couple of papers that corroborate this, both by well-respected physicists. Regarding the "environment" question, see Bousso and Susskind, "The Multiverse Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics", arxiv.org/abs/1105.3796. Regarding the "single Hamiltonian" question, see Banks, "TASI Lectures on Holographic Space-Time...", arxiv.org/abs/1007.4001. Both papers are speculative, and that's the point: I'm not sure anybody knows the answers. $\endgroup$ Nov 21, 2018 at 16:02


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