Let's consider this family of 1D spin-1 of hamiltonians:

$$\sum_{i}[S^x_{i}S^{x}_{i+1}+S^y_{i}S^{y}_{i+1}+\lambda S^z_{i}S^{z}_{i+1} + D(S^{z}_{i})^2].$$

If I understand it right, these models have:

  1. Translational symmetry

  2. Inversion symmetry ($S^{x,y,z}_{i}\to S^{x,y,z}_{-i+1}$)

  3. Time reversal symmetry ($S^{x,y,z}_{i}\to - S^{x,y,z}_{i}$)

  4. $Z_2\times Z_2$ symmetry ($\pi$-rotation about $x, y $ anz $z$ axes $S^{\alpha,\beta}_{i}\to - S^{\alpha,\beta}_{i}, S^{\gamma}_{i}\to S^{\gamma}_{i}$).

Then according to [1] there should be 1024 different SPT phases. But other than the Haldane phase and the trivial topological phase I don't know any other topological phase for this class of hamiltonians [2]. Where are the other phases?


[1] https://arxiv.org/abs/1103.3323

[2] Kennedy, T. & Tasaki, H. Commun.Math. Phys. (1992) 147: 431. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02097239

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ 1024, lovely. This model only realizes two SPT phases: the archetypal Haldane phase ($\lambda =0$; $D=0$) and the trivial phase ($D \to \infty$) (as well as a symmetry-breaking phase for $\lambda \to \infty$). For the other 1022 phases, you need other lattice models. There are papers on this as well, in particular by Wen. However, I haven't really seen physically plausible models that realize those other phases. $\endgroup$ – Ruben Verresen Nov 11 '18 at 23:26
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ In fact, scratch that: this nice paper shows that a physically reasonable spin-$2$ model realizes a variety of SPT phases with your above symmetry groups: arxiv.org/abs/1412.3370 $\endgroup$ – Ruben Verresen Nov 12 '18 at 23:56

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