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I would like to just know more why different prisms have different index of refraction? From the point of view of atomic physics or something?

I do not seek for full proof and derivation (which is also fine), but would like to know more conceptual approach?

I know it is from the point there is an interaction of light and matter, but no idea what else to continue or how to think about this.

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    $\begingroup$ Different types of glass have different optical constants. Is that what you mean by different prisms? Two different prisms made of the same glass will have the same optical constants. $\endgroup$ – my2cts Oct 28 '18 at 23:04
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    $\begingroup$ Indeed. Glass with lead or other heavy elements will have a larger refraction index because large ions are more polarizable. $\endgroup$ – Pieter Oct 29 '18 at 0:08

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