The modelling with mathematics of data from particle physics experiments is an evolving in time process. The success of quantum mechanical solutions in fitting the spectra of the atoms, describing the photoelectric effect and black body radiation, led to quantum field theories, which attempt to solve the many body problems of particle scattering and interactions. It is always the data which drive the mathematical models, validate them or not. Once the models are in place one can examine the mathematical consequences, but should always remember that it is data which validates or falsifies mathematical conclusions.
There were blind roads before settling on SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) as the standard model lagrangian in fitting practically all data accumulated since the 1960s: Regge poles and the parton model dominated as mathematical models of particle data. They were overthrown by the experimental verification of the quark model.
Effective field theories are a mathematical tool in all this process. The desire to get a theory of everything which would describe all of nature in a unified manner is a goal at present, formulated because of the successes up to now: Maxwell's equations , which very successfully describe the data at classical dimensions, unified electricity an magnetism to do so. Electroweak unification led to the standard model. So the impetus is going towards unifying in a GUT model the strong with the electroweak, and finally a theory of everything , all four known forces.
It is encouraging that supersymmetries help in the mathematics, and that data point towards a unified coupling constants scheme. The discovery of the Higgs reinforced this aspiration.
So it is not a matter just of cancelations of large numbers, which is useful, it is a matter of going towards a theory of everything for particle data, and thus for nature.
Arguments like "naturalness", reinforce the accepted expectation of unification. A unified theory should embed all the lower energy ones naturally.
It might be though a non attainable goal, but it is the present goal.