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I’ve often read casually that in order for modern string theory and other competing quantum gravity theories to be tested absolutely enormous temperatures (or rather energy densities) are required.

Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory in its modern formulation was more or less discovered similarly by considering high energy phenomenon such as photons, and nuclear reactions, and eventually escalating to modern particle physics.

But it’s well known that by taking materials to extremely low temperatures behavior such as a superconductivity and superfluidity can occur allowing us to essentially also discover the quantum world by making things cold as opposed to hot.

This leads me to ask: at how low of temperatures does our modern understanding of Quantum Field Theory break down, before we necessarily need to explore some “deeper” theory?

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