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I learned about the spectral hole burning. On Wikipedia, it said

Spectral hole burning is the frequency-selective bleaching of the absorption spectrum of a material, which leads to an increased transmission (a "spectral hole") at the selected frequency.

In that excerpt, does 'transmission' mean 'transparency'? I don't think so, but, I'd like to know exactly difference between transmission and transparency.

Also, in that sentence, what does bleaching mean?

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Photobleaching is the process by which a dye loses its 'color' - it stops absorbing light at certain frequencies.

The mechanisms by which this happen are nontrivial but you can kind of intuitively understand why it happens: if a molecule absorbs a photon of some frequency, that energy must go into some kind of excitation mode. There is some probability that that excitation will destroy a covalent bond, transforming the molecule into a different one, which is unlikely to absorb energy at that same frequency (or be very frequency selective at all).

'Transmission' may not be transparency generally; it just means that photons pass through instead of being absorbed or reflected.

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