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We were taught about He-Ne lasers in our Physics lecture and I took upon myself to self-study other type of Lasers. I was trying to make sense of the construction of Nd:YAG laser when I couldn't understand the following.

How is the monochromatic light polarized in the case of Nd:YAG lasers? Is a Brewster's window(like those in He-Ne lasers) needed?

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A Nd/YAG laser may or may not use a Brewster window, deoending on the particular design.

The primary purpose of a Brewster window is to minimize reflections at the front and back surfaces of the window. However, because reflections are only minimized for light whose E vector is in a plane containing the incident and refracted rays, light polarized in the orthogonal plane is not amplified as efficiently. So, lasers with a Brewster window always emit polarized light.

A Nd/YAG laser without a Brewster window emits unpolarized light.

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For high power lasers, there is no possibility to put a polarizer on output and usually using a Brewster window is preferred.

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The mode is polarized sufficiently and there is no need for polarizing element.

Brewster windows are often used in amplifiers.

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