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I am trying to find information on the relative merits of using a gas, liquid, solid or even a plasma as a radiation shield.

Examples
Ice, water and water vapour.
Iron, molten Iron, Iron vapour

Water is a little peculiar as the solid form, ice is less dense than the liquid form water. Water vapour is over 1000 times less dense than the liquid.

If a shield of water vapour 1KM thick is as good a protection as 1 meter of ice then the water vapour is a better shield per unit mass.

Earths shield is atmosphere. I saw somewhere that the top 70 Km provides almost all the shield, a link to that information might be helpful.

Please no theory just links or actual experimental results.

Answers can be partial, a specific material, in specific form under specified condition for a specific form of radiation at a minimum, but the more information in each answer is better.

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    $\begingroup$ What kind of radiation? That is, the answer may be quite different for visible photons vs energetic protons (say 10MeV solar wind protons). $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer Aug 29 '18 at 15:27
  • $\begingroup$ And, you adding an answer that is a summary of the other answers really isn't a thing here on SE. $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer Aug 29 '18 at 15:28
  • $\begingroup$ It's a good idea to add a nice single answer to compile the content of other answers (and presumably accept that) only if you find that there isn't anything which is complete and that the information is spread too thin. Don't set it up until you see that there are no suitable answers. $\endgroup$ – user191954 Aug 29 '18 at 15:55

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