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I'm reading the paper "The Problem of the Interrelation of Coordination and Localization", which is written by N. Bernstein. The paper says,

The degree of tension of a muscle is a function, in the first place, of its innervational (tetanic and tonic) condition $E$, and, in the second place, of its length at a given instant and of the velocity with which this length changes over time.

I don't know why the tension of a muscle is the function of those values and I can't understand what $E$ means. Does anyone know?

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The full citation is:

The degree of tension of a muscle is a function, in the first place, of its innervational (tetanic and tonic) condition $E$, and in the second place, of its length at a given instant and of the velocity with which this length changes over time. intact organism the length of a muscle is in its turn a function of the angle of articulation $\alpha$; for this reason we may write that the momentum of a muscle with respect to a joint is: $$F = F(E, \alpha,\frac{d\alpha}{dt})$$

In more detail, $E$ is a level of innervation of the muscle,

$\alpha$ is an angle of articulation,

$\frac{d\alpha}{dt}$ - angular velocity,

$F$ - momentum of the muscle.

So this is a basis of Bernstein's theory which connect momentum of the muscle $F$ with its innervation $E$. His further developments on the subject allow to draw an equation of for the movement of a single limb in a gravitational field under the influence of a single muscle.

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