So, I'm struggling to understand how the electromagnetic and the weak force were connected. Separately, I know pretty much how the two forces work and interact with the environment. I read a few about, but still I don't know how it works, please if someone can explain a little or sent an article or something it would be grateful.


  • 1
    $\begingroup$ This is addressed in any textbook on the subject. Please consult these to refine your question. $\endgroup$
    – my2cts
    Commented Aug 15, 2018 at 19:40
  • $\begingroup$ I think photons contain $W^0$s. $\endgroup$
    – JEB
    Commented Aug 16, 2018 at 1:36

1 Answer 1


A definition of the electroweak force is given by ref. 1 as:

The electroweak force is a force proposed by physicists Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg which unifies the electromagnetic and the weak force under conditions of extreme temperature prevalent much earlier in the history of the universe. The symmetry corresponding to this unification has since been "broken," with the ensuing expansion and drop in temperature of the universe yielding two of the four fundamental forces known today. When the electroweak unification energy (around 100 GeV) is achieved locally, for example in particle accelerators, the distinction between the electromagnetic force and the weak force disappears.

Hence this force is only relevant in extreme environments like early in the birth of the universe or in high energy physics experiments. A simple description is given in Ref. 2 and 3. the Nobel Prize was awarded to Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg in 1979 for their working leading to the Electroweak Theory.

ref. 1. http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/E/electroweak_force.html ref. 2. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Forces/unify.html ref. 3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroweak_interaction

  • $\begingroup$ yes. But I'd be guessing. $\endgroup$
    – Natsfan
    Commented Aug 15, 2018 at 22:15
  • $\begingroup$ Why don't you ask this as a question? If you are trying to quiz me I'm not biting nor do I appreciate it. The OP asked for an explanation or references. The OP didn't give nor indicate the level of mathematical sophistication so I just made an assumption and gave some references and a definition. If this doesn't satisfy you, you are welcome to void or reject my answer. The 10 point loss while extremely painful will not kill me.? The moderators can reject my answer if they see fit. And the OP sure doesn't have to accept it. $\endgroup$
    – Natsfan
    Commented Aug 15, 2018 at 22:53
  • $\begingroup$ Well if I was wrong I'm sorry. and trust me a downvote on a 'for fun' q&a site doesn't stress me out. I do this for fun usually. As it says in my references these two forces merge as one when the energy per particle is greater than about 100 GEV. This can occur at the LHC and maybe at Fermilab. But I'm guessing about Fermilab. Maybe at other accelerator labs. and maybe in the interior of large stars. But again that's a guess but could easily be researched. $\endgroup$
    – Natsfan
    Commented Aug 15, 2018 at 23:12

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