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"When excess charge is placed on a solid conductor and is at rest, it resides entirely on the surface, not in the interior of the material. �" Source: University physics 13th edition p(736).

Regarding the calculation of the electric field due to a uniform charge distribution within a conductor using GAUSS'S law, it's said that all charges are on the surface of the conductor (nothing within), which I don't understand. Why there is no charge within the conductor even if the charges are static?

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Why there is no charge within the conductor even if the charges are static!?

Informally: If there was free charge inside the (perfect) conductor, then there'd be field lines terminating on that charge, exerting a force on it. But that charge is free to move (it's in a conductor) so it would, until the conductor reached a case with zero electric field (hence no free charges) inside it.

(N.B.: One can try to think of i.e. perfectly symmetric cases where the charge wouldn't have a direction to move; a point charge at the exact center of a sphere for example. But those are unstable equilibria, and won't last long enough to be significant.)

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