In essence, the answer is more or less derived here:
The phase velocity does not contribute anywhere inside the integral, it is outside of the integral.
Inside the integral is only the omega prime (that is, the group velocity).
The derivation above shows that the group velocity ($\omega_0^\prime$) and phase velocity ($\omega_0$) are decoupled, and both are tied to the enveloppe and the carrier respectively and the latter is monochromatic, therefore, even though we have a 'dispersive' media because 'phase velocity depends on frequency', there's only one frequency that is affected by that (the monochromatic, central frequency)
In fact, one can show that, if we limit the Taylor expension of $\omega$ to first order, called linearization, as done in the wiki, it is impossible to explain a packet distortion, because both zero-th and first order terms are constant, and they define phase and group velocity respectively. So, by linearizing, we "force" the group velocity to be constant, which is equivalent to saying that the packet travels undistorted.
One has to push the expension to at least the second order to mathematically explain packet distortion.
In addition to that, if one really does this second-order expension, it turns out that the case of a Gaussian pulse is particular : the second-order term only affects the variance of the pulse, which will become larger as time goes. Consequently, the higher the second-order term, the higher the Gaussian pulse dispersion will be. But if the second-order term is zero, then the Gaussian Pulse will travel freely, even though the zero-th order (phase velocity) is a function of frequency via the dispersion relation, because, again, only one frequency is 'affected' by this dispersion relation.
In the wiki picture, the dispersion formula is $\omega = c\cdot k + \alpha$ where $\alpha$ is a constant. (Note: The wiki author provides links to a very nice jupyter notebook that can help reproduce the animation and see what the dispersion formula is ($\alpha=4$ in his notebook))
The consequence of this is that if you derive it once (w.r.t to $k$), you get the group velocity $c$, but if you derive it a second time, it is zero, hence the second-order term is zero, and this is another (necessary) reason for why the Gaussian pulse travels undistorted.
You can try making the dispersion relation second-order using e.g.
return pow(k, 2.) + 4
in the jupyter notebook and you will see the pulse shape distort.
[below is a tentative visual interpretation to get a sense of why a linear dispersion relation with a constant term doesn't really affect wave packets]
An important point to realize is that with a first-order dispersion relation like the one used here, the constant $\alpha$ merely shifts the spectrum in Fourier space. To illustrate with a "visual interpretation", the fact that the sum of monochromatic waves 'forms' a nice packet with a constant shape stems from the fact that a higher frequency wave have a higher wavenumber $k$ than one with lower frequency, and that their relation is some constant factor ($c$). Because it is constant, all their 'interferences' will stay the same. For a given time interval, all waves (irrespective of their frequency) will 'move' by their wavenumber proportionnal to some velocity ($c$ here).
Adding a constant to the dipsersion formula doesn't change that : it simply 'shifts the origin' but for a given time interval, all waves will move in the same manner than without the constant. Only non-linear relationships will distort the signal. Indeed, if there is a quadratic dependency ($k^2$) in the dispersion relation, now in a given time interval, higher-frequency waves will 'move' by their wavenumber times their wavenumber times some velocity ($c$ here), so different-frequency sub-packets will 'move' at different speed and thus distort the packet.
In summary, a monochromatic-modulated Gaussian pulse with a first-order-only dispersion relation is kind of a particular case, where you technically have (phase) dispersion but no (group) distortion.