This problem is briefly mentioned in various research papers I'm reading, but it's never addressed in detail.
The monolayer is attached atop a substrate as shown below
The centre of the monolayer is heated by a laser coming from the top of the diagram. If the monolayer has a thermal expansion coefficient larger than the substrate by an order of 2, what will happen? And also, if the monolayer was graphene and had a negative expansion coefficient, what do you think will happen?
As far as my thinking goes for the larger coefficient scenario, and what is sort of suggested in research papers, is that the material on top will raise up and form a blister because it's expanding much faster than the substrate and has nowhere else to go.
As for the graphene scenario, I'm not sure what the mechanism would be, a shrinking monolayer would go towards the laser spot, but if it's decreasing in size I'm unsure if it can manage to raise up and form a blister. I feel like it could possibly break apart?
Any suggestions appreciated!