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When you let a light beam going through a polarizing filter 50% of the light will go through in a polarization oriented the same way as the filter and the 50 other percents will be absorbed.

My question is :

Is there a way to separate a lightbeam without losint thos 50%? I mean for example that 50% would go through the filter or this hypothetical device and the 50 other percents would be reflected or redirected. Therefore having in the end 1 beam that is separated in 2 beams with different polarization without losing any photons.

I don't know if this exists or even if this is even possible... so this is my question : is it?

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Yes there is . It is called a polarizing beamsplitter.

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