For a singing bowl with water in it to resonate will require the mass of the water to be coupled to the mass of the bowl walls. This means there will be standing pressure waves within the fluid when the bowl is at resonance.
Within a 3-D standing wave in a body of fluid there will be regions where the pressure in the fluid goes slightly negative (and others where the pressure is slightly positive) relative to atmospheric. If you exert a slight amount of negative pressure on a fluid which is supersaturated with dissolved gas (like freshly-opened club soda for example) it tends to exsolve the gas in those regions, performing a little work on the fluid/gas system in the process. The performance of that work extracts energy from the standing wave, damping it.
In this sense, exsolvation of dissolved gas in regions of slightly-negative pressure within the fluid would suppress the establishment of standing waves in the fluid, which is probably the reason why your bowls could not resonate with soda water in them.
This could be tested experimentally by using a xenon flash strobe system to illuminate the fluid in the bowl for photography. The experiment is begun with pure water and the bowl set into resonance. The strobe is then sync'ed to that resonance. Then you slowly inject a syringeful of club soda into the center of the bowl and look for regions where the water turns milky, suggesting the transient exsolvation of the gas in regions of negative pressure.