Can anyone please explain me this thing by Ray diagram or a mathematical analysis?
closed as off-topic by AccidentalFourierTransform, Chris♦, rob♦ May 26 '18 at 22:07
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Since the refractive index of air is less than the refractive index of water, a bubble will diverge the light. So, if a bubble is placed between an object and a sensor, the image of the object won't be formed on the sensor regardless of the distances involved - for that to happen the light rays would have to focus on the sensor or converge.
Perhaps, this would be more obvious, if an object was a point source, since it is easy to see that, with diverging light, it would not be able to form a point image on the sensor.
Similarly, a real image cannot be formed by a concave (diverging) lens or a convex (or plane) mirror.