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Can anyone please explain me this thing by Ray diagram or a mathematical analysis?

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closed as off-topic by AccidentalFourierTransform, Chris, rob May 26 '18 at 22:07

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Since the refractive index of air is less than the refractive index of water, a bubble will diverge the light. So, if a bubble is placed between an object and a sensor, the image of the object won't be formed on the sensor regardless of the distances involved - for that to happen the light rays would have to focus on the sensor or converge.

Perhaps, this would be more obvious, if an object was a point source, since it is easy to see that, with diverging light, it would not be able to form a point image on the sensor.

Similarly, a real image cannot be formed by a concave (diverging) lens or a convex (or plane) mirror.

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  • $\begingroup$ In the x-ray range, the refractive index of water is slightly less than unity, less then air. Then a bubble can act as a positive lens. nytimes.com/1996/11/19/science/… $\endgroup$ – Pieter May 26 '18 at 18:40

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