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This question already has an answer here:

I have read that the charges in a conductor at most can move to the outer surface (unless provided a conducting path) and cannot go to the outer insulating region. My question is which force stops electrons from flying out? (Say we talk about excess charge on the surface or polarised conductors)

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marked as duplicate by Qmechanic May 4 '18 at 19:08

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Electrons in conductors are still bound to the conductor. The binding "force" in question would be the electrostatic force between the sea of electrons in the conduction band and the sea of protons in the nuclei of the atoms. In order for the electrons to "fly out" of the conductor, you need to give them a kick of energy vis. the photoelectric effect.

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