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If I have small piece of solid, for example, pure iron powder, fine sand , (at room temperature) then I cut it slowly into half again and again. Every times, after I cut it, I wait for temperature back to room temperature again.

Case 1: If I do this in vaccuum, is it change to liquid or gas ?

I think it might be impossible because intermolecular force will make it form solid again. If it is impossible what is the smallest size (approximately) that I can get and is it look like viscous liquid ?

Case 2: If I do this in water or in polar liquid, is it change to solute ?

Case 3: If I do this in carbon tetrachloride or in nonpolar liquid, is it change to solute ?

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  • $\begingroup$ Maxwell's Carpenter? $\endgroup$ – JEB May 4 '18 at 2:14
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Solid, liquid and gas are properties that belong only to multiple particles, not a single particle. Those words describe the relationship between different particles, not a single particle.

If you end up with a molecule, all you have is a molecule.

Now if you end up with zillions of molecules all whizzing around more or less at random, you have a gas.

If you end up with a dense bunch (zillions again) of molecules which are very close together but not actually joined by molecular bonds, then it's a liquid.

And if you end up with molecules that are clumped together by strong molecular bonds in a more or less rigid structure, it's a solid.

Whether a substance is soluble in water is, thankfully, the problem of chemists. A substance can react in many ways to contact with water.

Wikipedia's page on Carbon Tetrachloride also lists it's solubility in water.

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    $\begingroup$ This way you can make gas out of anything but it would not necessarily stay as gas indefinitely; if molecules collide and stick to each other then it should eventually return to a stable thermodynamic form possible for given temperature. And I doubt you can convert a solid into liquid form this way, for that you'd need to bring molecules pretty close to each other but still molecular forces somehow would not be able to solidify it right away; it seems such a system would collapse into solid form because it is thermodynamically stable. $\endgroup$ – Maxim Umansky May 3 '18 at 20:53
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There is no free lunch. The mechanical breaking of bonds by cutting will take as much energy as melting or boiling and the final temperatures should also be the same. It may seem impossible to get a liquid this way, but assuming a perfectly insulated sample, it will. The act of cutting will generate higher energy molecules that are vibrating or moving linearly. This is the definition of heat, so the answer to doing without heat is no, you can't.

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  • $\begingroup$ Ok, I will change some of the process. $\endgroup$ – Ro Theory May 4 '18 at 6:09

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