Say you cook up a model about a physical system. Such a model consists of, say, a system of differential equations. What criterion decides whether the model is classical or quantum-mechanical?
None of the following criteria are valid:
Partial differential equations: Both the Maxwell equations and the Schrödinger equation are PDE's, but the first model is clearly classical and the second one is not. Conversely, finite-dimensional quantum systems have as equations of motion ordinary differential equations, so the latter are not restricted to classical systems only.
Complex numbers: You can use those to analyse electric circuits, so that's not enough. Conversely, you don't need complex numbers to formulate standard QM (cf. this PSE post).
Operators and Hilbert spaces: You can formulate classical mechanics à la Koopman-von Neumann. In the same vein:
Dirac-von Neumann axioms: These are too restrictive (e.g., they do not accommodate topological quantum field theories). Also, a certain model may be formulated in such a way that it's very hard to tell whether it satisfies these axioms or not. For example, the Schrödinger equation corresponds to a model that does not explicitly satisfy these axioms; and only when formulated in abstract terms this becomes obvious. It's not clear whether the same thing could be done with e.g. the Maxwell equations. In fact, one can formulate these equations as a Dirac-like equation $(\Gamma^\mu\partial_\mu+\Gamma^0)\Psi=0$ (see e.g. 1804.00556), which can be recast in abstract terms as $i\dot\Psi=H\Psi$ for a certain $H$.
Probabilities: Classical statistical mechanics does also deal with probabilistic concepts. Also, one could argue that standard QM is not inherently probabilistic, but that probabilities are an emergent property due to the measurement process and our choice of observable degrees of freedom.
Planck's constant: It's just a matter of units. You can eliminate this constant by means of the redefinition $t\to \hbar t$. One could even argue that this would be a natural definition from an experimental point of view, if we agree to measure frequencies instead of energies. Conversely, you may introduce this constant in classical mechanics by a similar change of variables (say, $F=\hbar\tilde F$ in the Newton equation). Needless to say, such a change of variables would be unnatural, but naturalness is not a well-defined criterion for classical vs. quantum.
Realism/determinism: This seems to depend on interpretations. But whether a theory is classical or quantum mechanical should not depend on how we interpret the theory; it should be intrinsic to the formalism.
People are after a quantum theory of gravity. What prevents me from saying that General Relativity is already quantum mechanical? It seems intuitively obvious that it is a classical theory, but I'm not sure how to put that intuition into words. None of the criteria above is conclusive.