my name is Amin and I'm a High school student. I have been struggling with the concept of the electric field produced by a battery for months; so I'd really appreciate it if I could get some assistance with understanding the answers to the questions below (Just to clarify, my knowledge in this topic is very limited: However, I know and understand the Maxwell's equations to an acceptable degree):
Q(1): Would it be reasonable to say that a battery behaves like an electric dipole?
Q(2): Is my depiction of the electric field produced by a battery correct? (The battery hasn't been connected to a wire)
Q(3): If the answer to the previous question is YES, how does the above illustration tie in with the chemistry behind the operation of a battery?
To understand this, I studied the topic about electrochemical cells. Using an electrochemical cell consisting of two half-cells containing a zinc and a copper electrode as an example, my understanding of this topic could be summarised in the illustration shown below:
(Based on my understanding, since Zinc favours oxidation the position of equilibrium for the reversible reaction shown on the left will be shifted to the right. Similarly since Copper favours reduction the position of equilibrium for the reversible reaction shown on the right will be shifted to the left. This would imply that the electron charge density on the Zinc electrode will be greater than that of the copper electrode)
Q(3)": Doesn't this mean that the electric field produced by the battery should look like the illustration shown below, instead of looking like a dipole?
(sorry if the picture is unclear; I was only able to show a general direction for the field lines in the picture.)
Q(4): Now, what ever the answer to the previous questions may have been, I understand that when a battery is connected across the ends of a circuit electrons would be pushed away from its negative pole and attracted towards the positive pole (It makes sense that the electrons would leave the electrode with the lower electric potential and move towards the one with a higher electric potential).
My question, here is that "Does the electric potential difference across the ends of the battery stay constant as electrons leave one electrode and move to the other one? (In other words, does the electron charge density on both of the electrodes stay unchanged when a current is present?So are there the same number of electrons present on each electrode at all times?)
Q(5): If the answer to the previous question is YES (meaning that the electron charge density on the electrodes doesn't change when a current is present), then does that mean that the electrons that will be going through the circuit are the ones that were present in the circuit in the first place and aren't from the battery? (Would it be reasonable to say that the electrons that have accumulated on each electrode only provide a force which directs the electrons in the circuit and that they do not take part in producing a current themselves?)
Q(6): If the electric charge on the electrodes behave in the way described in the previous question, would the following argument be correct?:
"Given that the circuit is open (shown above) there will be no current going through it. However, when such set-up is arranged there will be a brief current for an instant of time until the ends of the two wires become charged. This charging would continue until the electric potential of each of the ends of the two wires equals the electric potential of the battery terminal it is connected to.(The electron charge density at the end of each wire becomes equal to the electron charge density of the terminal it is connected to)"
If the above argument is incorrect, what's the correct behaviour of the charge in a wire at the very instant it is connected to a battery (in an arrangement such as the one shown above)? and why?
Q(7): What causes the current in the open circuit shown above to stop after a short instant of time (If the electric charge density of , say the negative pole, has stayed constant what opposes the further pushing of the electrons out of the negative terminal)?
That's all. I'd really appreciate it if you could help me with any of the above questions.