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I need to understand something specific. The theory of electroweak temperature says that when you have a plasma of particles at energy above the electroweak phase transition (100 GeV). The Higgs field would turn from nonzero vev to zero and the electroweak forces would unite and the electroweak bosons would become massless.

What happens if this occurs during a collision where only a small section reaches the electroweak transition temperature or energy, or in other words, an isolated electroweak plasma surrounded by normal vacuum, does it mean you have a region of thermal-field vacuum undergoing electroweak phase transition, surrounded by a region of normal vacuum? How do you characteristic this bubble? Or is it not possible? remember the usual scenario is that during the electroweak phase of the Big Bang, all of space and vacuum has uniform plasma and temperature.. here I'm describing an isolated electroweak plasma in small section of vacuum (surrounded by normal vacuum)

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    $\begingroup$ Would this not be analogous to a superconductor that is hit by a fast particle creating a local area where the order parameter is zero (non superconducting region)? The higgs field expectation value would have a nontrivial spatial dependence, instead of being uniform like in the usual case. $\endgroup$ – KF Gauss Mar 19 '18 at 4:25
  • $\begingroup$ So what does Thermal Field Theory say about this? How do they describe the boundary (or bubble) between the phase transitioned vacuum inside the plasma (above 100 GeV) and the surrounding normal vacuum? Any references I can read about this? Any experts here who can help? $\endgroup$ – Jtl Mar 19 '18 at 11:59
  • $\begingroup$ I can't comment too much since I'm not too familiar with electroweak theory, but usually this is described by a Landau-Ginzburg field theory. In such a theory, the vev of some operator is treated as an order parameter which has its own free energy. From there you can study fluctuations of the order parameter near the phase transition where you would get bubbles of the type you are describing. $\endgroup$ – KF Gauss Mar 20 '18 at 1:22
  • $\begingroup$ I would also say that at least for the case of a superconductor, the boundaries between the two regions is not perfectly sharp, but instead has a characteristic length scale. I'm not sure what that scale is for the electroweak interaction, but this means that the spatial derivative of the vev across the boundary is finite and should be smooth. $\endgroup$ – KF Gauss Mar 20 '18 at 1:24

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