I have already read some of the similar posts here, but I am still not convinced as I am unable to understand the key concept behind the reasoning which is offered.

It is said that conductors are characterized by free electrons and these electrons will not settle down until the force on them is zero and this can only happen if the field inside is zero.

But now I am not able to understand why it is necessary for electrons to settle down, can't they just be perpetually moving due to forces on them and continuously transform their energies from electric potential energy to kinetic energy and vice versa. What prohibits this situation ?

I think this would be a more probable situation as finding arrangements wherein the net field is zero at all points inside would be highly difficult as it would require a very delicate balance. I know that my thinking is flawed because it is not consistent with experimental results, but it would be nice to get an explanation for this. Maybe, I am yet not comfortable with these new concepts, so I would request you to please explain yourself in detail as it may help clear my other doubts as well.

Also, I would not prefer a strictly mathematical reasoning as I'm in high school and these concepts are a bit new for me, and an intuitive reasoning would be suffice as otherwise I may not clearly understand your point.



When electrons move inside a conductor (other than a superconductor), they produce heat. You can think of it as friction. As a result, though the electrons move in response to any electric field in the conductor, they don't simply keep moving like a frictionless pendulum. They come to a stop at the point of lowest potential energy, the same way a real pendulum does. It's not a point of delicate balance because it's at the bottom of a potential well, rather than at the top of a potential hill.


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