My teacher told me that base line of electricity is the charge and charges have property of attraction and repulsion based on the polarity. Each charge has influence around it which is known as the electric field.When the two terminals of the battery are connected with the conductor a potential difference is created which is also a deficiency and access of charge on both sides. Due to which positive charge has more influence so it attracts electrons from the negative side and also due to access of the electrons on the anode there is also influence of electric field. And when the influence lines of both electric field interact each other there is a force of attraction that cause the electron to move from anode to cathode which is the cause of Electricity.
But what I don’t understand why not the current flows if we connect only the positive terminal of the battery. Because, the cathode which is positively charged and has influence on the free electrons in the conductor and the electrons can also be attracted towards cathode and eventually disposed into the electrolyte. In this case there should be some kind of current and the electrons should lose some kinetic energy in this regard whose impact could be seen if we connect some kind of LED with conductor. This is just like static electricity concept but why its not happened when the wire is connected with only positive terminal.
A current does flow until the whole of the wire is at the same potential as the positive terminal.
In effect that wire is one plate of a capacitor with probably the earth or the negative terminal as the other plate.
As the capacitance of the arrangement is so small the amount of charge which needs to flow to "charge up" the capacitor is very small and hence this current is unlikely to be detected using standard laboratory equipment.