I am a math student and I have been self studying physics lately. I am going to take a course on electromagnetism this year, so I searched for books that are mathematically rigorous on that topic. And I found some good ones, but none of them explain where did Coloumb's Law came from, it's taken as a fact, as an axiom, and it doesn't explain how it was deducted. I know that experiments lead to the formulation of this law, but what experiments? What was the reasoning that lead to the law? What is the history of the topic, and why no one stated the law before, knowing that there were many experiments in the 18th century?
This is not exclusive to books on electromagnetism, I also found that problem in every book I read about Newtonian Mechanics. The basic laws of the topic are taken as a fact and all the theory is derived from them without explaining why is the law true. And I find that frustrating. I want to know how those laws were deducted. After all, physics is based on experiments, but the books I have read almost never mention an experiment.
So my question is, is there a book, or any other media, that focuses on how were the laws deducted, the experiments, the history of the topic and the people that contributed to it?
PS: Sorry for my bad English, I'm still learning.