From Oersted experiment we know " When an electric current is passed through a conducting wire, a magnetic field is produced around it." An electric current is a flow of electric charge or electron. My question is "How does a flow of electron or electric charge create magnetic field?"

  • $\begingroup$ @MohammadMizanurRahaman...You should consider the case of special relativity here... $\endgroup$ Feb 28 '18 at 9:16
  • $\begingroup$ I am just a 11th grade student.My concepts about SR is very dim. Isn't it possible to explain this question without SR? $\endgroup$ Feb 28 '18 at 9:26
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ Not really. Without SR, magnetism is pretty much best explained as a fundamental phenomenon. You can't really explain why it happens any more than you can explain why a stationary charge has an associated electric field. $\endgroup$
    – Chris
    Feb 28 '18 at 9:44

I would suggest watching this by Veritasium.
Suppose you are the charge and moving along a current carrying wire at a distance d from it.
Now the electrons in the wire relative to you are going backwards and since einstein proposed his laws, the electrons get a little squished relative to you.
So you will see that the electrons are crowded together and the wire is now not neutral relative to you, you will observe a electrostatic force. In the ground frame we call it magnetic force.

  • $\begingroup$ The metaphor of understanding the topic in video is awesome.Now it is almost clear to me $\endgroup$ Mar 3 '18 at 8:32

The short answer is because a moving charge induces a magnetic field.

The longer answer has to include what we observe and what we we have to deduce. Oersted has observed that a moving in circles electron (the current in the coil) led to a magnetic field. How that happens in detail:

Moving in circles a body experience an acceleration. Why it is important to mention this fact? Because under this acceleration the electrons spins get aligned. And the intrinsic magnetic dipole moment of the electron gets aligned together with its spin! So the magnetic field of the coil is the sum of the magnetic dipole moments of the involved electrons.

  • $\begingroup$ I thought about spin of electron but not in this way. But what do you mean by "the intrinsic magnetic dipole moment of the electron gets aligned together with its spin"? I can't realise this line poperly $\endgroup$ Feb 28 '18 at 9:39
  • $\begingroup$ @MohammadMizanurRahaman ... The alignment of dipole moments produces polarity in the conductor... $\endgroup$ Feb 28 '18 at 9:59
  • $\begingroup$ Do you want to say this polarity originate the field? $\endgroup$ Feb 28 '18 at 10:01
  • $\begingroup$ To understand it at a more fundamental level , you need to go through the Maxwell's equations as to why changing electric field induces magnetic field. $\endgroup$ Feb 28 '18 at 10:02
  • $\begingroup$ @NehalSamee The Maxwell equations describe the observations, but they don't explain the reason for the magnetic field. I also wonder how HolgerFiedler's answer aligns with the possible duplicate answer, explaining the magnetic field as a consequence of special relativity. $\endgroup$
    – Aziraphale
    Feb 28 '18 at 10:23

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