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When sound travels inside open tube,part of it gets reflected back at the opening.This is due to impedance difference.

  1. How much does skin friction of tube walls affect impedance? Would tube with theoreticaly zero skin friction have smaller impedance mismatch at the opening?

  2. How can I calculate how much sound energy will be reflected back into the tube for certain tube diameter and frequency? I am thinking about simple straight tube with uniform circular cross section that is closed at one end,signal is sinewave.Please no equations,I dont understand them,just simple divide and multiply math

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